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Diesel Generator Operation Manual SYSTEM OPERATION Operation Part 3-1 Starting

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Diesel Generator Operation Manual SYSTEM OPERATION Operation Starting Part 3-1 

 Pre-start Checks& Starting at Switch Panel (Manual Mode)


5.6  Starting

Caution:One operator should be in complete charge, or working under the direction of someone who is. Remember that, upon starting the engine, cables and switchgear will become energised, possibly for the first time. Furthermore, equipment that does not form part of the generator set installation may become electrically charged. Only authorised and competent personnel should carry out this work.

Caution:Do not use an Emergency Stop switch to shut down an engine unless a serious fault develops. The Emergency Stop push-switch must not be used for a normal shut-down, as this will prevent a cooling down run in which the lubricating oil and engine coolant carry heat away from the engine combustion chamber and bearings in a safe manner.


Caution:Avoid off-load running for other than short periods. A minimum loading of 30% is recommended. This loading will help to prevent the build up of carbon deposits in the injectors, due to unburnt fuel, and reduce the risk of fuel dilution of the engine lubricating oil. The engine must be shut down as soon as possible after the appropriate functions have been checked.

Before attempting to start the generator set, the operator should read through this entire section and become familiar with the Engine Manual. It is essential that the operator be completely familiar with the generator set and the PCC 3201 control.

The following headings cover the systems used to start the generator set. Figure 5-1 provides a flow chart for each of the three Start/Run/Stop sequences.

Before starting the generator set, make sure that exhaust and fuel fittings are tight and properly positioned, and that proper maintenance and pre-start checks have been performed.

During starting automatic checks are carried out for the integrity of various protection systems. The PCC 3201 will not allow the generator set to continue the starting sequence if the integrity of a sensor is considered to be in doubt.

The generator set can be configured for a number of starting cycles (one to seven) with set times for crank and rest periods for all starting modes (manual/remote). The default setting is for three start cycles, composed of fifteen seconds of cranking and fifteen seconds of rest.

Note:   The InPower service tool is required to change the number of starting cycles, and the crank and rest times. Contact an authorised distributor for assistance.


5.6.1   Pre-start Checks

WARNING: GENERATOR SET VOLTAGE PRESENTS SPECIAL HAZARDS OF SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH. EVEN AFTER GENERATOR SET SHUTDOWN, AN ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD MAY STILL EXIST CAUSED BY INDUCED OR RESIDUAL VOLTAGE WITHIN THE ALTERNATOR OR CABLES. SERVICE PERSONNEL MUST BE WELL- TRAINED/QUALIFIED TO WORK WITH DISTRIBUTION VOLTAGES.

WARNING: WINDINGS OF HIGH VOLTAGE, 601 TO 15,000 VOLTS, GENERATOR SETS MUST BE DRY BEFORE THE GENERATOR SET IS OPERATED. FAILURE TO ENSURE DRY WINDINGS BEFORE START-UP MAY RESULT IN CATASTROPHIC FAILURE, SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY AND DEATH.

Before starting, be sure competent personnel have made the following checks to ensure that the unit is ready for operation:

Generator Set Grounding Procedure – This must be followed prior to performing service or inspection procedures that may expose personnel to conductors normally energized with voltages greater than 600 volts. Contact your authorised distributor.

Megger and Insulation Testing – This must be performed on all high voltage (601 to 15,000 volts) generator sets before initial start-up and after the generator set Grounding Procedure has been completed. Insulation testing for low voltage (less than 600 volts) generator sets is recommended by Cummins Power Generation Limited.

Note:   These tests are used to verify that the windings are dry before the generator set is operated, and to develop a base line for future test comparisons. Contact your authorised distributor.

Caution:When Megger testing an alternator, failure to protect the voltage regulator, control and diodes could result in permanent damage to one or more of the electronic components.

Lubrication - Check the engine lubrication oil level and ensure that the level is always maintained as detailed in the engine manual.

Note:   Generator sets may be shipped dry. They must be filled with the correct type and quantity of oil before use. Be sure to check oil level before initial start.

Coolant - Check the engine coolant level and ensure that the level is always maintained at the coolant expansion tank. Fill the cooling system to the bottom of the fill neck in the radiator fill or expansion tank. Do not check while the engine is hot. Ensure that there are no leaks and that all fittings are tight.

Note:   Some radiators have two fill necks, both of which must be filled when the cooling system is drained

Caution:Do not attempt to remove a radiator pressure cap while the generator is running, or is stationary but hot. Always allow it to cool before removing.

Note:   Generator sets may be shipped dry. They must be filled with the correct type and quantity of coolant before use. Be sure to check coolant level(s) before initial start.

Cooling Air Inlet / Outlets - Ensure that the cooling air inlets/outlets are unobstructed. Remove all loose debris from surrounding area of generator set. Air flow from the radiator fan can blow loose items around and into ventilation openings.

Exhaust Outlet - Ensure that exhaust components are secured and not warped; that the exhaust outlet is unobstructed; that no combustible materials are near the system, and gases are discharged away from building openings. Ensure that there are no leaks and that all fittings are tight.

Fuel Supply - Ensure that the fuel tank is filled to the normal level and that the fuel system is primed and all the valves required for operation are open. Ensure that there are no leaks and that all fittings are tight.

Batteries – Ensure that the batteries are charged, that the electrolyte is at the correct level and that all connections are correct.

Auxiliary AC Supplies - Ensure that all auxiliary equipment is receiving power from the Load Terminal Box.

Emergency Stop/Fire Detection Equipment - Ensure that all related equipment is fully operational.


5.6.2   Starting at Switch Panel (Manual Mode)

WARNING: ENSURE THAT ALL PRE-START CHECKS ARE CARRIED OUT BEFORE STARTING THE GENERATOR SET. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO START THE SET UNTIL IT IS SAFE TO DO SO. WARN ALL OTHERS IN THE VICINITY THAT THE SET IS ABOUT TO START.

Caution:One operator should be in complete charge, or working under the direction of someone who is. Remember that, upon starting the engine, cables and switchgear will become energised, possibly for the first time. Furthermore, equipment that does not form part of the generator installation may become electrically charged. Only authorised and competent personnel should carry out this work.

Caution:Do not use an Emergency Stop switch to shut down an engine unless a serious fault develops. The Emergency Stop push-switch must not be used for a normal shut-down, as this will prevent a cooling down run in which the lubricating oil and engine coolant carry heat away from the engine combustion chamber and bearings in a safe manner.

Caution:Avoid off-load running for other than short periods. A minimum loading of 30% is recommended. This loading will help to prevent the build up of carbon deposits in the injectors, due to unburnt fuel, and reduce the risk of fuel dilution of the engine lubricating oil. The engine must be shutdown as soon as possible after the appropriate functions have been checked.

Note:    PTC: With the Optional Power Transfer Control (PTC) feature enabled, the function    and sequence of operation for the Start command differs due to the transfer and re- transfer of load. Refer to Power Transfer Control Operation, later in this section, for the Start/Run/Stop PTC sequences.

Turn the Off/Manual/Auto switch to the Manual position and press the Manual Run/Stop button. This will activate the engine control system and the starting system. The starter will begin cranking, and after a few seconds the engine will start and the starter will disconnect.

In the Manual position, the control will not complete the Time Delay to Start or Time Delay to Stop (Figure 5-1), but will complete the Warm–up at Idle and Cool–down at Rated/Idle. (See Table 5-1 for the PTC sequence of operation).

When the coolant reaches operating temperature or the Warm–up at Idle Time Delay is reached (0 to 300 seconds), whichever occurs first, the generator set will ramp to rated speed and voltage.

Note:   PTC: To manually transfer the load between the utility and the generator set during generator set operation, refer to Transfer Control (PWR TRAN) Submenu in this section.

If the engine does not start, the starter will disengage after a specified period of time and the control will indicate an Overcrank Shutdown.

To clear a Fail to Start Shutdown, place the Off/Manual/Auto switch in the Off (O) position and press the Fault Acknowledge button. Wait a minimum of two minutes for the starter motor to cool and then repeat the starting procedure. If the engine does not run after a second attempt, refer to Section 7 -Troubleshooting.

When the switch is in the Manual position, the generator set can be operated in the Idle mode (used for maintenance, troubleshooting etc.).

figure5-1

Figure 5-1Normal Start/Run/Stop Sequences


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